(Letter excerpt)

…I was invited by House Speaker Nancy Pelosi to speak before the Democratic House of Representatives in 2002, on the issue of healthcare. I was flown to Washington, and met with Rep. Earl Blumenhauer and Rep. Pelosi, because I had written a brief account of a personal healthcare crisis in my own family, which attracted their attention.


In summary, shortly after my software engineer husband and I moved into our new house with our two children, his company folded and he lost his job. Shortly thereafter, he was diagnosed with kidney stones, and we had to pay our entire college/life savings ($10,000) for his surgery. We were fortunate, of course, to be able to pay this bill at all, but my point is: I have certainly known poverty and healthcare problems, and I care deeply about health equity.


In this spirit, I am submitting to you that the recent vote by the City Council, although I am certain was seriously intended to provide health equity for lower income people who do not have dental care access, actually puts the poorest at highest risk for fluoride overexposure, a serious health concern acknowledged by virtually all reputable health organizations, from the ADA, AAP, WHO, EPA, FDA, NIH, CDC, etc.


Fluoride, the 17th most prevalent element on the planet, is ubiquitous. It is in virtually all processed foods, a number of pesticides, in gasoline, a number of pharmaceuticals, coal, air-pollution, foods cooked in fluoridated water, some crops grown in fluoride-rich soils or watered with fluoridated water, many fruit-juices, sodas, bottled teas, a number of cleaning products, etc.


It is already naturally occurring in Portland drinking water at roughly 0.1ppm, and with the current Council recommended addition of even .7 ppm, Portland’s water will exceed the newest HHS scientific recommendations to limit fluoride exposure to a maximum of solely .7 ppm:


“HHS’ proposed recommendation of 0.7 milligrams of fluoride per liter of water replaces the current recommended range of 0.7 to 1.2 milligrams. This updated recommendation is based on recent EPA and HHS scientific assessments to balance the benefits of preventing tooth decay while limiting any unwanted health effects. These scientific assessments will also guide EPA in making a determination of whether to lower the maximum amount of fluoride allowed in drinking water, which is set to prevent adverse health effects.

The new EPA assessments of fluoride were undertaken in response to findings of the National Academies of Science (NAS). At EPA’s request, in 2006 NAS reviewed new data on fluoride and issued a report recommending that EPA update its health and exposure assessments to take into account bone and dental effects and to consider all sources of fluoride. In addition to EPA’s new assessments and the NAS report, HHS also considered current levels of tooth decay and dental fluorosis and fluid consumption across the United States.”



The World Health Organization and others acknowledge that with the prevalence of fluoridation in our water supplies, we are exposed to more fluoride than ever. (Please see references below).


The sad truth is, lower income populations are most at risk for overexposure to fluoride. Adults only excrete 50-60% of the fluoride we ingest. Children only excrete about 20%! And babies and seniors, excrete even less. So we accumulate fluoride in our cells, bones, blood and organs, even in the pineal gland in our brains. So even incremental exposures, in ppms, can bioaccumulate in our bodies. This is a very well substantiated medical fact, as documented in my fact sheet and bibliography below.


Those who can breastfeed their babies, have air-conditioning, work indoors, buy expensive water filters, eat fewer processed and more organic foods, avoid high traffic polluted areas, use fewer cleaning products, take fewer medications, and eat a vitamin and calcium-rich diet will be at much less risk for Fluoride overexposure.


Unfortunately, the opposite of those things is true for many low-income people. In fact, babies bottle-fed with fluoridated water in their formula will ingest 50-100 times more fluoride than breastfed babies. The ADA and AAP both recommend that babies be given NO fluoride, and Gerber even sells unfluoridated water to use in formula for babies. And fluoride readily crosses the placenta.


Those like my eleven year old son, a nonstop soccer/martial arts athlete, or my cyclist husband, will be also more exposed to fluoride, (in addition to the fluoride ubiquity I mentioned above), as they drink large quantities of water. Over time, excess fluoride accumulated in our bodies will chelate in our bones, replacing calcium. This causes bone brittleness, in addition to dental and skeletal fluorosis, as documented by the ADA.


A whopping average of 41% of adolescents in areas with fluoridated areas have dental fluorosis, the first sign of fluoride overexposure.


And fish, mammals and insects like bees also bioaccumulate fluoride in their bodies. Salmon runs have been documented to be disrupted by fluoride, to which they are very sensitive. And bees are fluoride sentinels: they are very affected by this toxin which is used in a number of pesticides.


As stated earlier, and documented in the fact sheet included below, fluoride overexposure is

considered by most health professionals to be a serious health hazard. I hope you will review my

well-documented research below, and reassess your vote on water fluoridation, which bioaccumulates in our bodies and ecosystem, and presents serious health hazards to all populations, especially for lower income groups.


Thank you,

Jen Davis

Writer, beekeeper, urban farmer, activist and mom

Founder: We All Need Bees Coalition





1.) Kentucky has been fluoridating 90% of its drinking water for over thirty (30) years, yet is #1 the nation in edentulism, or toothlessness. Also it ranks high in childhood cavities and very high baby-bottle cavities. (1) Kentucky is also one of the poorest states in the nation. (2) Poverty tends to reduce access to regular dental care and a healthy diet to grow strong teeth and bones.


2.) 99% of tap fluoridated water will drain to our rivers. The World Health Organization documents clear evidence that fluoride is accumulated in fish, birds, mammals, soil, water and air. (2.4)


3.) Bees (already threatened-half of Italy’s bees died in 2011) are very sensitive to fluoride: they are known as fluoride sentinels, because scientists can measure fluoride in a region by examining bee bodies and their hives. (2.5). Many pesticides contain fluoride. (2.6). One third of our food crops depend on bees for pollination.


4.) There is clear evidence salmon runs are disrupted by fluoride in streams and rivers. (4) (5)


5.) Pharmaceutical grade fluoride in toothpaste may help strengthen teeth. (5.5)

In countries not using water fluoridation, improved dental health can be interpreted as the result of the introduction of topical fluoride preventive treatment (fluoridated toothpaste or mouth rinse, or fluoride treatments within the dental clinic). Other preventive regimens include fluoride supplements, fluoridated salt, improved oral hygiene, changes in nutrition or care system practices, or any change that may result from improved wealth and education in these countries. This suggests that water fluoridation plays a relatively minor role in the improvement of dental health.


6.) But DRINKING industrial Fluorosilicic acid, (the phosphate waste product used in municipal water supplies), will over time increase the likelihood of the development of a host of health problems, because we accumulate fluorides in our bodies. (6)


Adults excrete only 50-60% of the fluoride we ingest. Children will RETAIN 80% of the fluoride they ingest. And babies and seniors excrete even less! Fluoride even crosses the placenta in pregnancy. (7)(8). Further:


“Virtually all foodstuffs contain at least trace amounts of fluoride..”


Fluoride in foods is significantly affected by the fluoride content of the water used in preparation or processing. Fluorides are also in many pesticides used on crops. (9)


Fluoride is present in body organs, tissues and fluids.


So over time, our bodies can become OVEREXPOSED to fluoride.


Fluoride is the 17th most abundance element in the earth’s crust… Due to its ubiquity, it is ingested on a daily basis in varying amounts. Certain foods contain more fluoride than others, and the Fluoride Content in Tea can be very high. Dark tea, for example, is enriched in fluoride (3 – 6 ppm). Artificially fluoridating the drinking water results in a significant increase in Fluoride ingestion on a daily basis since this creates a ‘halo’ effect; foods and beverages processed in a city served by artificially fluoridated water will contain elevated levels of Fluoride. Accidental fluoridation overfeeds have resulted in entire communities suffering acute fluoride poisoning, one resulting in death (Gessner, et al, 1994) and there have been accidental exposures of the concentrated fluoridation chemicals that have resulted in severe acute fluoride chemical burns and life-threatening sequelae (Bjornhagen, et al, 2003).


Fluoride is already naturally occurring in Portland water; is in virtually all processed foods; in crops grown in fluoride-rich soils; in foods cooked in fluoridated water; milk from cows drinking fluoridated water; fish; meats from animals exposed to fluoride; gasoline; many medicines; many cleaning products; in coal; in air pollution… (10)


7.) It is not possible, concedes the the WHO, the EPA, and the (DHHS) Department of Human Health Services, to measure an individual’s fluoride intake. (11)


The excretion of fluoride in urine is reduced in individuals with impaired renal function (Schiffl & Bins- wanger, 1980; Spak et al., 1985; Kono et al., 1986).


F intake varies: ” A number of factors, such as age, nutritional status, renal function and calcium intake, in addition to the extent and duration of exposure, can influence the amount of fluoride deposited in bone and, conse- quently, the development of skeletal fluorosis”(US DHHS, 1991).


“Individuals with impaired renal function, such as those with diabetes, may be more prone to developing fluoride-related toxicological effect due to their diminished excretion of fluoride ” (Kaminsky et al., 1990; US DHHS, 1991


It is also understood that, in addition to fluoride exposures from drinking water ingestion, the Dean (1942) populations are likely to have also been exposed to fluoride present in dietary items grown or cooked with fluoride- containing water.


“There are few data from which to estimate total exposure to and the bioavailability of fluoride, and there are inconsistencies in reports on the characterization of its adverse effects.” 


8.) Those that drink a lot of water (like my ninja/soccer son and cyclist husband!) will be exposed to greater amounts of fluoride;


as will those that work outdoors, who do not have air-conditioning, who eat more processed foods or foods cooked for extended periods in fluoridated water (like beans); those that drink a lot of tea; which takes up fluoride from soils; those who eat a less vitamin and calcium-rich diet; those living in hot climates; etc! Will all take up more fluoride than others. (10)


Age, body-weight, diet and physical health are all factors. According to the World Health Organization, babies drinking formula prepared with fluoridated water will be drinking 50-100 times more fluoride than is deemed suitable for their size. The American Dental Association has recommended that babies be given NO fluoride. And remember, they have less ability to excrete this chemical than adults. (14)


9.) Hundreds of studies from the ADA, EPA, World Health Organization, the National Institutes of Health, the Environmental Working Group, the Harvard School of Medicine, the Harvard School of Public Health, etc. have linked overexposure to fluoride to a host of health problems, including:


dental fluorosis, skeletal fluorosis, brittle bones, kidney and liver disorders, diabetes, thyroid and endocrine suppression, cancers, (including osteosarcoma, the most prevalent childhood bone cancer), osteoporosis, and others. Very recent research done with thousands of Chinese children, and a meta-analysis at Harvard School of Public Health, have found clear links to overexposure of fluoride (which is listed by the EPA as A neurotoxin) with lowered IQS in children. (15)


So, does it make sense to spend $5,000,000 to install fluoride infrastructure and then another half a million dollars PER YEAR to dump Fluorosilicic acid, an industrial pollutant (15.5) into our drinking water to medicate all of Portland, from embryos, babies, children, adults and seniors, with all differing medical and physical needs?


Does it make sense to flush 99% of our limited public health dollars down the drain, accumulating Fluorosilicic acid throughout our ecosystem and wildlife?


“The health effects of fluoride is contentious. It has generally been thought that small levels of Fluoride(0.7 – 1.2 ppm in drinking water for example) increase bone density and increase calcium fluorapatite in teeth which is generally thought to lead to fewer cavities. Fluoride regulation in drinking water supplies at the .7 – 1.2 ppm level is recommended still by the American Dental Association and theWorld Health Organization. But, many are beginning to believe that chronic fluoride exposure can lead to liver damage, kidney damage, and Dental Fluorosis among other things.


10.) Amidst these negative findings, the American Academy of Allergy and Immunology, the American Academy of Diabetes, the American Cancer Society, the American Diabetes Association, the American Nurses Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the National Kidney Foundation, and the Society of Toxicology have discounted fluoride as a beneficial additive and no longer support its use (Kauffman, 2005). Additionally there is an ethical argument surrounding city officials adding fluoride to drinking water supplies.


11.) Oregon is one of the hungriest states in the nation. A healthy, vitamin and calcium rich diet is ESSENTIAL to grow good bones and teeth. Also, Stanford University found that people in the NW are exposed to less sunlight, critical for stimulating body-production of the hormone Vitamin D, necessary for good bone and teeth growth. (17) (18)


So: instead of raising our water/sewer rates again, then dumping our tax dollars into the drain,

let’s spend that 500,000,000 tax dollars, along with the additional $500,000 every year after that:


12.) feeding hungry children healthier diets; increasing access to dental care for all; and for proponents, let’s continue (or even expand) the school OPTIONAL fluoride rinse program offered for children all PPS schools, and throughout critical populations. (19)

Let’s teach kids and adults more about healthier eating habits and oral hygiene.

And let’s all go outside more, and play.



(1)”The self-reported data on toothlessness are discouraging particularly as the public health system in Kentucky has worked so diligently over the past three decades to have the second highest rate of citizens exposed to optimally fluoridated water (90%) in the country – second only to Minnesota.”

“The prevalence of Early Childhood Caries (ECC – formerly called Baby Bottle Tooth Decay) is noted to be very high in Kentucky compared to national studies; the prevalence has increased dramatically from surveys in 1987 to 2001 – particularly among poor and near poor Kentuckians.


(2) http://cber.uky.edu/Downloads/Sanford&Troske07.pdf


(2.4)Fluorides can be taken up by aquatic organisms directly from the water or to a lesser extent via food. Fluorides tend to accumulate in the exoskeleton or bone tissue of aquatic animals.Mean fluoride concen- trations of >2000 mg/kg have been measured in the exoskeleton of krill; mean bone fluoride concentrations in aquatic mammals, such as seals and whales, ranged from 135 to 18 600 mg/kg dry weight.


(2.4) Terrestrial plants may accumulate fluorides following airborne deposition and uptake from soil.


(3)The concern centers on the fluoride ion’s toxicity, persistence, and bioaccumulation in humans, wildlife, and soil. The main pesticides are:

• Cryolite: (sodium aluminum fluoride) – mainly used on grapes, fruits, and potatoes. EPA allows fluoride tolerances of 7 ppm, except for kiwifruit, which has a residue tolerance of 15 ppm.

•Sulfuryl fluoride is the most immediate and important pesticide issue for the FAN Pesticide Project. This acutely toxic fumigant received its first-time approval for use on stored food commodities (raw and processed) in the US in January 2004. This approval allows the highest levels of fluoride residue levels in food in the history of the EPA. FAN, together with Beyond Pesticides, submitted formal objections to EPA on this approval (see press release). See the food tolerances approved and petitioned for as of July 15, 2005.

• Sodium fluoride – its only known use is in wood preservatives(railroad ties and utility poles). However, sodium fluoride was used as a “List 4 Inert” until USEPA revoked that use in September 2005. Prior to its revocation, sodium fluoride, as a “List 4 Inert,” wasapproved for use in the US National Organic Program administered by the US Department of Agriculture (USDA). In 2000, approximately 125 individuals contacted USDA requesting that the use of sodium fluoride be denied in organic agriculture – all to no avail. UPDATE: On October 10, 2007, USEPA released a series of documents in preparation for a final risk assessment.


(4)Consider the majesty of their design. Sporting a stubble of electrostatically-charged hairs, bees lure pollen — and other particles — to their bodies like magnets. They filter air and water through their bodies at a phenomenally fast rate. Their home, the hive, makes a near-perfect gallery for observing the off-gassing of the man-made pollutants they pick up.

Capitalizing on that vast network in 1984, the University of Montana team used local bees and beekeepers in Puget Sound to solve a regional, and ultimately, national mystery: Where were large quantities of arsenic, cadmium and fluoride coming from? The bees quickly found the culprit: a smelting plant in Tacoma, Washington.


(4)Fluoride-sensitive species can be used as sentinels for the identi- fication of fluoride hazards to the environment.There is a need to improve knowledge on the accumulation of fluoride in organisms and on how to monitor and control this.The biologicaleffects associatedwithfluorideexposure should be better characterized.


(5)Behavioral experiments on adult Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus sp.) in soft-water rivers indicate that changes in water chemistry resulting from an increase in the fluoride concentration to 0.5 mg/litre can adversely affect migration; migrating salmon are extremely sensi- tive to changes in the water chemistry of their river of origin. In labor- atorystudies,fluorideseems tobetoxicformicrobialprocessesatcon- centrations found in moderately fluoride polluted soils;similarly,in the field, accumulation of organic matter in the vicinity of smelters has been attributed to severe inhibition of microbial activity by fluoride.


(5.5)has been estimated that, worldwide, almost twice as many people are exposed to fluoride for the prevention of dental caries through the use of toothpastes as from the consumption of controlled fluoridated drinking- water. In many countries, fluoridated toothpastes, which usually contain approximately 1000 mg fluoride/kg, represent more than 95% of total dentifrice sold. The use of these products is considered to be one of the major factors responsible for the gradual decline in the prevalence of dental caries in most industrialized countries. In areas where the prevention of dental caries through the widespread use of fluoridated drinking-water, salt or milk may not be feasible, the use of fluoridated toothpastes remains an effective means of improving dental health.


F in processed beverages:

(10) Use of fluoridated municipal water in the preparation of foods and beverages in the home, in restaurants and in commercial food manufacturing plants could have also increased fluoride intake, especially in communities that originally had non-fluoridated municipal water


F in cooking:

(10) It is also understood that, in addition to fluoride exposures from drinking water ingestion, the Dean (1942) populations are likely to have also been exposed to fluoride present in dietary items grown or cooked with fluoride- containing water.


F in pollution:

(10)Hydrogen fluoride is an important industrial compound that is used mainly in the production of synthetic cryolite (Na3AlF6), alumin- ium fluoride (AlF3),motorgasoline alkylates and chlorofluorocarbons, with an annual world consumption in excess of 1 million tonnes.


F in pesticides and industrial:

(10)The use of fluoride-containing pesticides as well as the controlled fluoridation of drinking-water supplies also contribute to the release of fluoride from anthropogenic sources. Based on available data, phosphate ore production and use as well as aluminium manufacture are the major industrial sources of fluoride release into the environment.


F in fish and tea:

(10)Elevated levels are present in fish. Tea leaves are particularly rich in fluoride; the amount of fluoride in brewed tea is dependent upon the concentration ofsoluble fluoride in the tea leaves, the leveloffluoride in the water used in its preparation and the length of the brewing period.


F in virtually ALL foodstuffs, including baby-formula:

(10) and (14)Virtually all foodstuffs contain at least trace amounts of fluoride. http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ehc/WHO_EHC_227.pdf Fluoride in foods is significantly affected by the fluoride content of the water used in preparation or processing, most notably in beverages and dry foodstuffs — for example,powdered baby formula — to which water is added prior to consumption. The concentrations of fluoride in unwashed or unprocessed foods grown in the vicinity of industrial sources (emissions) of fluoride may be greater than the levels in the same foods grown in other non-industrially exposed areas. In commer- cially available infant formulas sold in the USA, soy-based ready-to- use and liquid concentrate formulas contained higher levels of fluoride than the equivalent milk-based products; however, no significant difference was observed between soy- and milk-based powdered infant formulas. Fluoride has been detected in breast milk; reported levels range from <2 to about 100 μg/litre, with most values being between 5 and 10 μg/litre.

F in formula dosage rate:

(10) and (14):Infants fed formula receive 50–100 times more fluoride than exclusively breast-fed infants.


F retention rates:(10)Fluoride crosses the placenta and is transferred from mother to fetus. Fluoride is eliminated from the body primarily in the urine. In infants, about 80–90% of a fluoride dose is retained; in adults, the corresponding figure is A approximately 60%.


F pollution:(10)The total amounts of hydrogen fluoride released to air, surface water, under- ground injection and land in the USA during 1999 were 33 000, 7.7, 1800 and 64 tonnes, respectively. Total amounts of fluorine released to air, surface water and land were 39, 24 and 500 tonnes, respectively (US EPA, 1999).


F on body-weight to intake ration:(10)Although adults may have a higher absolute daily intake of fluor- ide in milligrams, the daily intake offluoride by children on a milligram per kilogram body weight basis may exceed that of adults. In certain areas of the world in which the concentration of fluoride in the surrounding environment (mainly groundwater) may be exceedingly high and/or diets are composed of foods rich in fluoride, estimated intakes of fluoride in adults as high as 27 mg/day have been reported (Liu, 1995; Anasuya et al., 1996; Cao et al., 1996; Karthikeyan et al., 1996). In certain areas of China in which coal rich in fluoride is used for heating and food preparation (e.g., cooking, food drying),


F on skin exposure:(10) Available information on the absorption of fluoride through the skin is limited to cases of acute dermal exposure to hydrofluoric acid. Although hydrofluoric acid appears to be rapidly absorbed following dermal exposure, in view of the extremely corrosive nature of this compound, absorption into the general circulation could also be a consequence of damage to the vascular system.

F in cow’s milk: Cows ingesting fluoridated water or feed processed with fluoridated water produce milk containing fluoride. The mean fluoride concentration of 0.041 mg/kg (range, 0.007–0.086 mg/kg) reported in a Canadian study (Dabeka and McKenzie 1987) that surveyed fluoride concentrations in 68 samples of milk sold in retail stores across Canadian provinces was used in this analysis. 


(10) Felsenfeld & Roberts (1991) reported the case of a 54-year-old woman who, after having consumed drinking-water containing approx- imately 8 mg fluoride/litre over a period of 7 years, had osteosclerosis and stiffness in her knees and hips.


(10)The number of cases of coal- burning-type skeletal fluo rosis has been estimated t o be 1.5 million (Hou, 1997; Liang et al., 1997).


(10)In the United States, water and processed beverages (e.g., soft drinks and fruit juices) can provide approximately 75% of a person’s fluoride intake (83). Many processed beverages are prepared in locations where the drinking water is fluoridated. Foods and ingredients used in food processing vary in their fluoride content (11). As consumption of processed beverages by children increases, fluoride intake in communities without fluoridated water will increase whenever the water source for the processed beverage is fluoridated (84). In fluoridated areas, dietary fluoride intake has been stable because processed beverages have been substituted for tap water and for beverages prepared in the home using tap water (11).


A study of Iowa infants estimated that the mean fluoride intake from water during different periods during the first 9 months of life, either consumed directly or added to infant formula or juice, was 0.29–0.38 mg per day, although estimated intake for some infants was as high as 1.73 mg per day (85). As foods are added to an infant’s diet, replacing some of the formula prepared with fluoridated water, the amount of fluoride the infant receives typically decreases (86). The Iowa study also reported that infant formula and processed baby food contained variable amounts of fluoride. Since 1979, U.S. manufacturers of infant formula have voluntarily lowered the fluoride concentration of their products, both ready-to-feed and concentrates, to <0.3 ppm fluoride (87).


(10) Exposures to fluoride have increased since the early 1960s. At that time, drinking water and food and beverages prepared with fluoridated water accounted for nearly all of an individual’s fluoride intake. Today, exposure to fluoride comes from more sources including fluoridated dental products such as toothpaste and mouthwash, as well as the voluntary addition of fluoride to drinking water, which some systems do as a public health measure for reducing tooth decay. 


(10) In 2010, however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 41% of American adolescents had dental fluorosis, with 8.6% having mild fluorosis and 3.6% having either moderate or severe dental fluorosis (Beltran-Aguilar 2010). As the 41% prevalence figure is a national average and includes children living in fluoridated and unfluoridated areas, the fluorosis rate in fluoridated communities will obviously be higher.


(10) In 2010, however, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reported that 41% of American adolescents had dental fluorosis, with 8.6% having mild fluorosis and 3.6% having either moderate or severe dental fluorosis (Beltran-Aguilar 2010). As the 41% prevalence figure is a national average and includes children living in fluoridated and unfluoridated areas, the fluorosis rate in fluoridated communities will obviously be higher.


(10)Using only water with low fluoride levels to mix formula will reduce, but will not eliminate, the risk for dental fluorosis. Children can take in fluoride from other sources during the time that teeth are developing (birth through age 8). These sources include drinking water, foods and beverages processed with fluoridated water, and dental products, such as fluoride toothpaste, that can be swallowed by young children whose swallowing reflex is not fully developed. 


(10)There is clear evidence fromIndia and China that skeletal fluorosis and an increased risk of bone fractures occur at a total intake of14mg fluoride/day and evidence suggestive of an increased risk of bone effects at total intakes above about 6 mg fluoride/day.


(10) Our results demonstrated that fluoride accumulation in the soft tissue of this animal (freshwater mollusk) was much higher (up to 1,409.6 µg F(-) /g dry wt) than that in its shell (up to 706.4 µg F(-) /g dry wt). If we consider this datum and the fact that D. polymorpha is widespread in many aquatic ecosystems around the world, representing a food source for many birds and other vertebrates, we have to acknowledge the possibility that it can represent a serious danger in view of fluoride biomagnification in the aquatic environment.


Del Piero, S., Masiero, L., Casellato, S. Influence of temperature on fluoride toxicity and bioaccumulation in the nonindigenous freshwater mollusc Dreissena polymorpha Pallas, 1769. Environ Toxicol Chem. 2012 Aug 7. doi: 10.1002/etc.1979.


(11)Fluoride is present in body organs, tissues and fluids. Concen- trations of fluoride in whole blood of individuals residing in a com- munity in the USA receiving fluoridated drinking-water ranged from20 to 60 μg/litre. The mean plasma level in 127 subjects with 5.03 mg fluoride/litre in their drinking- water was 106 ± 76 (SD) μg/litre. Serum and plasma contain virtually the same amount of fluoride.


(11) Approximately 80% of an absorbed dose of fluoride is retained in young children compared to 50% in adults. This is supported by the finding that renal fluoride excretion rate is lower in children than adults. This difference in fluoride retention is due to high fluoride uptake in developing bones.” SOURCE: Agency for Toxic Substances & Disease Registry (ATSDR) (2003). Toxicological profile for fluorides, hydrogen fluoride, and fluorine. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service.


(11)Dairy calves (Bos sp.) were fed on continuous (1.5 mg/kg body weight), periodic (1.5 mg/kg body weight for 6 months; control diet for 6 months) and alternate (3 mg/kg body weight for 4 months; 0.75 mg/kg body weight for 8 months) diets for 6 years. Vertebral fluoride levels were 550 mg/kg ash weight for controls and 15 000, 7700 and 14 000 mg/kg for the three treatment groups, respectively (Suttie, 1983).


(11.5)Fluoride-sensitive species can be used as sentinels for the identi- fication of fluoride hazards to the environment.There is a need to improve knowledge on the accumulation of fluoride in organisms and on how to monitor and control this.The biologicaleffects associatedwithfluorideexposure should be better characterized.



(14)The breast-fed infants were in a negative F balance, excreting more F than they ingested. The bottle-fed infants, on the other hand, retained more than 50% of the ingested F dose. The rapidly growing skeleton certainly enhances F retention, but a contributing factor might also be a slow elimination rate for F, caused by a not fully developed renal handling capacity for F at this early stage of life.”

SOURCE: Ekstrand J, et al. (1984). Fluoride Balance Studies on Infants in a 1- ppm-Water-Fluoride Area. Caries Res. 18:87-92.


(14)Water accounted for 43% of the total daily intake and average water intake ranged from 18 mL/kg [0.27 fluid ounces (0.008 mL) per day per pound of body weight (0.454 kg) at a mean daily maximum temperature of 50oF] to approximately 38 mL/kg [0.58 fluid ounces per day per pound of body weight) at a mean daily maximum temperature of 100oF (estimates based on graphical presentation of the data)]. These data indicate that water intake can more than double under extremely hot conditions; consequently, fluoride intake from drinking water would increase proportionally.


(14) and Lamson (1953) suggested that the higher temperatures in hot climates, as well as the increased amount of sunshine each day (radiant heat), contributed to the increased fluorosis by causing an increase in drinking water intake, resulting in an increase in fluoride intake. Temperature-related increases in total fluid and water consumption were documented by Galagan and Vermillion (1957) for children (under age 1 to age 10 yr) residing in two communities in California. The study showed that for every degree increase in daily maximum temperature between 50 and 100°F, water intake increased, on average, by 0.062 ounces per pound of body weight. This relationship was described by the equation:


F impact on seniors :

(14)The excretion of fluoride in urine is reduced in individuals with impaired renal function (Schiffl & Bins- wanger, 1980; Spak et al., 1985; Kono et al., 1986). http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ehc/WHO_EHC_227.pdf


(14) osterosclerosis: Ingestion of fluoride over a long period of time during which calcium intakes are apparently normal can lead to osteosclerosis with immobilization of joints of the axial skeleton and of the major joints of the extremities (Krishnamachari, 1986)

And:(14)Exposure to fluoride during treatment for osteoporosis may lead to calcium deficiency, owing to the stimulation of bone growth, even in cases where patients are given supplemental calcium as part of the therapeutic protocol (Dure-Smith et al., 1996).http://whqlibdoc.who.int/ehc/WHO_EHC_227.pdf


(14)Ingestion of fluoride over a long period of time during which calcium intakes are apparently normal can lead to osteosclerosis with immobilization of joints of the axial skeleton and of the major joints of the extremities (Krishnamachari, 1986)http://water.epa.gov/action/advisories/drinking/upload/Fluoride_dose_ response.pdf


(14)The effects of fluoride are usually only visible after prolonged exposure to contaminated water. Its effects are debilitating, ultimately leaving people severely crippled. Ultimately fluorosis can lead to death. Long-term exposure to low concentrations of arsenic in drinking-water causes painful skin lesions and can result in cancers of the skin, lungs, bladder and kidneys.


(15) “Fluoride seems to fit in with lead, mercury, and other poisons that cause chemical brain drain,” Grandjean says. “The effect of each toxicant may seem small, but the combined damage on a population scale can be serious, especially because the brain power of the next generation is crucial to all of us.” 


(15)Arthritis: “Symptoms of pain, stiffness and diffuse aches may be dismissed as functional, but may in fact be early signs of fluoride damage to tendinous insertions and ligaments as well as joint capsules.”


SOURCE: Anand JK, Roberts JT. (1990). Chronic fluorine poisoning in man: a review of literature in English (1946-1989) and indications for research. Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 44: 417-420.


(15)Kidney disease: “Five of the six patients exposed to fluoridated dialysate for an average of 23 months suffered bone pain and fractures, and three of these patients had incapacitating symptoms. . . . Osteomalacia was significantly more severe in the fluoridated group.”


SOURCE: Johnson W, et al. (1979). Fluoridation and bone disease in renal patients. In: E Johansen, DR Taves, TO Olsen, Eds. Continuing Evaluation of the Use of Fluorides. AAAS Selected Symposium. Westview Press, Boulder, Colorado. pp. 275-293.


(15)Diabetes: Fluoride has been shown to increase blood glucose levels and impair glucose tolerance, likely by inhibiting insulin production or secretion. Impaired glucose tolerance, often a precursor to type 2 diabetes, has been found to occur in humans with fluoride intakes of only 0.07-0.4 mg/kg/day— a dose that can be reached in areas of “optimally” fluoridated water. Current intakes of fluoride exposure, therefore, may contribute or exacerbate some types of diabetes. According to the National Research Council (2006), “any role of fluoride exposure in the development of impaired glucose metabolism or diabetes is potentially significant.”


(15)thyroid: The thyroid gland, which regulates the body’s metabolic rate, plays an exquisitely important role in human health. Because all metabolically active cells require thyroid hormone for proper functioning, thyroid disruption can have a wide range of effects on virtually every system of the body. Chemicals that can interfere with thyroid function must thus be treated with great caution. According to the U.S. National Research Council, and as discussed below, there is substantial evidence that fluoride exposure can impact thyroid function in some individuals. (NRC 2006


(15)Fluorosis is brown, grey or black streaking on teeth. Severe fluorosis creates pitting, or holes in teeth. Adolescents aged 12–15 had the highest prevalence of dental fluorosis (40.6%) (Figure 2). The prevalence is lower among older age groups. The lowest prevalence was among those aged 40–49 (8.7%). The prevalence of dental fluorosis among children aged 6–11 (33.4%) was lower than the prevalence among those aged 12–15 (40.6%).

Prevalence and Severity of Fluorosis in the United States, 199-2004

(15) The ingestion of fluoride with food retards its absorption and reduces its bioavailability. When fluoride was ingested as sodium fluoride tablets on a fasting stomach, the bioavailability of fluoride was almost 100%. When the same dose was taken together with a glass of milk, the bioavailability decreased to 70%; when it was taken together with a calcium-rich breakfast, the bioavailability was further reduced to 60% (Ekstrand & Ehrnebo, 1979; Trautner & Einwag, 1989; Shulman & Vallejo, 1990). The decrease in absorption associated with the ingestion of milk or food is probably due to binding of fluoride with certain food constituents, including calcium and other divalent and trivalent cations.


(15.5)The manufacture of phosphate fertilizer in Central Florida releases not only fluorides as a toxic pollutant but also radionuclides. Radium wastes come from the filtration systems. Uranium and its decay-rate products are found in the phosphate rock and fertilizer as well as the byproduct fluorosilicic acid. During the wet-process procedure, trace amounts of both radium and uranium are captured in the scrubbers and therefore are in the fluorosilicic acid. During the acidulation process yielding phosphoric acid, radon gas in the phosphate pebbles can be released and carried into the fluorosilicic acid, while polonium can be captured during the scrubbing process and then can combine with fluoride (Glasser, undated).http://ntp.niehs.nih.gov/ntp/htdocs/chem_background/exsumpdf/fluorosilic ates.pdf


(15.5)Our process for the manufacture of anhydrous hydrofluoric acid from Fluorosilicic acid Combines the design knowledge…and uses fluosilicic acid waste liquor from the fertilizer industry As the raw material. Fluorosilicic acid is produced in significant quantities as a waste product

>From the conversion of apatite (phosphate rock) ito phosphoric acid, and unless it is Utilized or neutralized, the potential for serious pollution and environmental damage is high. Buss Chem Tech AG and Chemical Works Lubon S.A. (Poland)


(15.5) Roughly half of the dry additive sodium fluorosilicate is domestically produced in the United States by a single manufacturer and is dependent on the fluorosilicic acid market or conditions at the single location of production. The remainder is imported, principally from Asian sources, and supply is dependent on shipping and transportation factors. Most sodium fluoride is imported from Asia. Therefore, the availability of sodium fluoride is more dependent on shipping and transportation factors.


(17)The hunger rate in Oregon continues to hover far above the national average — according to a federal Department of Agriculture report released Monday.


(18)Vitamin D deficiency, believed to be linked to a wide range of health problems, is becoming increasingly common in the United States, affecting as many as 30 to 40 percent of the population. 


(19) About 17 million low-income children received no dental care in 2009. 


(19) Mouth rinse and tablet program available to all schools in Multnomah County.